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is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. The region is mostly mountainous and forested.
In Armenian Highland spring the rivers Tschoroch, Kura, Tigris, Euphrates, Araks and other, between their sources, according to the Bible (Genesis, 2 / 8-16) was the Garden of Eden, the birth of Adam and Eve.
According to medieval Armenian sources, the settlement was first mentioned as Vararakn
In the 18th century the Khan of Karabakh founded Xankəndi ("the Khan's village")
After the October Revolution, a new city was founded (1923), which was renamed Stepanakert.
*** Stalin arbitrarily connected 1921 this Armenian territory to Azerbaijan ***
The political and economic reforms that General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev had initiated in 1985 saw a marked decentralization of Soviet authority. Armenians, in both Armenia proper and Nagorno-Karabakh, viewed Gorbachev's reform program as an opportunity to unite the two together. On February 20, 1988, tens of thousands of Armenians gathered to demonstrate in Stepanakert's Lenin (now Renaissance) Square to demand that the region be joined to Armenia. On the same day, the Supreme Soviet of Nagorno-Karabakh voted to join the Armenian SSR, a move staunchly opposed by the Soviet Azerbaijani authorities. Relations between Stepankert's Armenians and Azerbaijanis, who supported the Azerbaijani government's position, deteriorated in the following years and as a result, nearly all of the Azerbaijanis fled the city
In 1988 the Armenians began in Artsakh (Nagorno Karabakh) their liberation movement, with the intention to connect the in 1921 by Stalin arbitrarily Azerbaijan connected Armenian territory back to their homeland.
In the course of 1988 escalating Karabakh conflict the National Council of Nagorno Karabakh proclaimed in September 1991, the independence of the Republic of Nagorno Karabakh Stepanakert as its capital
On November 26, Azerbaijan Nagorno Karabakh withdrew the autonomy and began the rocket attacks Stepanakerts.
By taking Shushi on 9th of may 1992 Azerbaijani shelling of the city was stopped.
The independence of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh from Azerbaijan was not recognized internationally. The regional capital is still considered as belonging to Azerbaijan, which took the name Stepanakert used Xankəndi
It is common ground that the country Artzach has always been part of the Armenian Kingdom